The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices

The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices von Doyle,  Michael P., Gurtler,  Joshua B., Kornacki,  Jeffrey L.
Low water activity (aw) and dried foods such as dried dairy and meat products, grain-based and dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, peanut and nut pastes, as well as flours and meals have increasingly been associated with product recalls and foodborne outbreaks due to contamination by pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and enterohemorrhagic E. coli.  In particular, recent foodborne outbreaks and product recalls related to Salmonella-contaminated spices have raised the level of public health concern for spices as agents of foodborne illnesses. Presently, most spices are grown outside the U.S., mainly in 8 countries: India, Indonesia, China, Brazil, Peru, Madagascar, Mexico and Vietnam. Many of these countries are under-developed and spices are harvested and stored with little heed to sanitation. The FDA has regulatory oversight of spices in the United States; however, the agency’s control is largely limited to enforcing regulatory compliance through sampling and testing only after imported foodstuffs have crossed the U.S. border. Unfortunately, statistical sampling plans are inefficient tools for ensuring total food safety. As a result, the development and use of decontamination treatments is key. This book provides an understanding of the microbial challenges to the safety of low aw foods, and a historic backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw foods as vehicles for foodborne pathogens.  Up-to-date facts and figures of foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are included.  Special attention is given to the uncanny ability of Salmonella to persist under dry conditions in food processing plants and foods.  A section is dedicated specifically to processing plant investigations, providing practical approaches to determining sources of persistent bacterial strains in the industrial food processing environment.  Readers are guided through dry cleaning, wet cleaning and alternatives to processing plant hygiene and sanitation.  Separate chapters are devoted to low aw food commodities of interest including spices, dried dairy-based products, low aw meat products, dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, nuts and nut pastes, flours and meals, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and pet foods.  The book provides regulatory testing guidelines and recommendations as well as guidance through methodological and sampling challenges to testing spices and low aw foods for the presence of foodborne pathogens.  Chapters also address decontamination processes for low aw foods, including heat, steam, irradiation, microwave, and alternative energy-based treatments. 
Aktualisiert: 2018-07-26
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Pell’s Equation

Pell’s Equation von Barbeau,  Edward J.
Pell's equation is part of a central area of algebraic number theory that treats quadratic forms and the structure of the rings of integers in algebraic number fields. It is an ideal topic to lead college students, as well as some talented and motivated high school students, to a better appreciation of the power of mathematical technique. Even at the specific level of quadratic diophantine equations, there are unsolved problems, and the higher degree analogues of Pell's equation, particularly beyond the third, do not appear to have been well studied. In this focused exercise book, the topic is motivated and developed through sections of exercises which will allow the readers to recreate known theory and provide a focus for their algebraic practice. There are several explorations that encourage the reader to embark on their own research. A high school background in mathematics is all that is needed to get into this book, and teachers and others interested in mathematics who do not have (or have forgotten) a background in advanced mathematics may find that it is a suitable vehicle for keeping up an independent interest in the subject.
Aktualisiert: 2018-07-26
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Plant Transcription Factors

Plant Transcription Factors von Yamaguchi,  Nobutoshi
This detailed book provides general protocols and technologies that plant biologists worldwide often utilize for the purpose of accelerating research progress in the field of plant transcription factors. Beginning with a brief introduction, the volume continues by exploring methods in the preparation of plant materials, detection of expression levels, interaction tests, and chromatin analyses. Written for the highly successful series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, aims to answer a wide range of questions related to transcription factors commonly raised by plant biologists.
Aktualisiert: 2018-07-26
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